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下丘脑 Hypothalamus转载2008-02-24

  • 来源:cfl
  • 作者:cfl
  • 更新日期:2019-07-04 13:50
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下丘脑又称丘脑下部。位于大脑腹面、丘脑的下方,是调节内脏活动和内分泌活动的较高级神经中枢所在。通常将下丘脑从前向后分为三个区:视上部位于视交叉上方,由视上核和室旁核所组成;结节部位于漏斗的后方;乳头部位于乳头体。 The hypothalamus is also kno

下丘脑又称丘脑下部。位于大脑腹面、丘脑的下方,是调节内脏活动和内分泌活动的较高级神经中枢所在。通常将下丘脑从前向后分为三个区:视上部位于视交叉上方,由视上核和室旁核所组成;结节部位于漏斗的后方;乳头部位于乳头体。

The hypothalamus is also known as the hypothalamus. Located below the ventral surface of the brain and the thalamus, it is the higher nerve center that regulates visceral activity and endocrine activity. The hypothalamus is usually divided into three regions from front to back: the upper part is located above the cross of vision and consists of the upper nucleus and the parietal nucleus; The nodules are located behind the funnel; The nipple is located on the nipple body.

下丘脑 Hypothalamus

下丘脑能通过下述三种途径对机体进行调节:①由下丘脑核发出的下行传导束到达脑干和脊髓的植物性神经中枢,再通过植物性神经调节内脏活动;②下丘脑的视上核和室旁核发出的纤维构成下丘脑——垂体束到达神经垂体,两核分泌的加压素(抗利尿激素)和催产素沿着此束流到神经垂体内贮存,在神经调节下释放入血液循环;③下丘脑分泌多种多肽类神经激素对腺垂体的分泌起特异性刺激作用或抑制作用,称为释放激素或抑制释放激素。下丘脑通过上述算途径,调节人体的体温、摄食、水平衡、血压、内分泌和情绪反应等重要生理过程。如损毁双侧下丘脑的外侧区,动物即拒食拒饮而死亡;损毁双侧腹内侧区,则摄食量大增引起肥胖。体温调节的高级中枢位于下丘脑,下丘脑前部受损,动物或人的散热机制就失控,失去在热环境中调节体温的功能;如后部同时受损伤,则产热、散热的反应都将丧失,体温将类似变温动物。损坏下丘脑可导致烦渴与多尿,说明它对水平衡的调节有关。

The hypothalamus can regulate the body by the following three pathways: 1. The downward conduction beam from the hypothalamus reaches the vegetative nerve center of the brain stem and spinal cord, and then regulates the internal organs through the vegetative nerve; 2 The fibers emitted by the hypothalamus and the paracyclic nucleus form the hypothalamus -- the pituitary bundle reaches the pituitary gland, and the vasopressin(antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin secreted by the two nuclei flow along the bundle and flow into the pituitary body for storage. Release into the blood circulation under nerve regulation; 3 The secretion of multiple polypeptide neurohormones in the hypothalamus has a specific stimulatory effect or inhibitory effect on the secretion of the pituitary gland, known as releasing hormones or inhibiting releasing hormones. The hypothalamus regulates important physiological processes such as body temperature, feeding, water balance, blood pressure, endocrine and emotional reactions through the above calculation pathways. If the lateral area of the bilateral hypothalamus is damaged, the animal will refuse to eat or drink and die; When the bilateral ventral medial area is damaged, the increase in food intake causes obesity. The advanced center of body temperature regulation is located in the hypothalamus, and the anterior part of the hypothalamus is damaged. The mechanism of heat dissipation in animals or humans is out of control and loses the ability to regulate body temperature in a hot environment; If the posterior part is damaged at the same time, the heat generation and heat dissipation reactions will be lost, and the body temperature will resemble a warming animal. Damage to the hypothalamus can cause thirst and multiple urination, indicating that it is related to the regulation of water balance.

下丘脑对情绪反应有影响,切除大脑皮层而保留下丘脑的动物,可自发产生或轻微刺激就能引起假怒的情绪表现,如猛甩尾巴、竖毛、张牙舞爪、挣扎、瞳孔扩大、呼吸加快、血压升高等。去除下丘脑的动物,只能零星地表现出上述部分反应。刺激猫下丘脑前区,会引起低头、耳向后倒、拱背吼叫、肌肉紧张等恐惧反应。这都说明下丘脑与情绪反应关系密切。上述下丘脑的种种功能,有许多是和边缘系统其他部位的活动密切相关的,而并非下丘脑所独立完成的。

The hypothalamus has an impact on the emotional response. Animals that excise the cerebral cortex and retain the hypothalamus can spontaneously produce or slightly stimulate emotional expressions that can cause false anger, such as slamming the tail, vertical hair, teeth and claws, struggling, and pupils. Enlarged, accelerated breathing, elevated blood pressure, etc.. Animals that remove the hypothalamus can only show some of the above reactions sporadically. Stimulating the anterior area of the cat's hypothalamus can cause fear reactions such as bow, backward ear, arched back roar, and muscle tension. All this indicates that the hypothalamus is closely related to emotional response. Many of the above-mentioned functions of the hypothalamus are closely related to the activities of other parts of the limbic system, rather than being performed independently of the hypothalamus.

下丘脑是大脑皮层下调节内脏活动的高级中枢,它把内脏活动与其他生理活动联系起来,调节着体温、摄食、水平衡和内分泌腺活动等重要的生理功能。

The hypothalamus is a high-level center for regulating visceral activity under the cerebral cortex. It links visceral activity with other physiological activities and regulates important physiological functions such as body temperature, feeding, water balance, and endocrine gland activity.

(一)体温调节 动物实验中观察到,在下丘脑以下横切脑干后,其体温就不能保持相对稳定;若在间脑以上切除大脑后,体温调节仍能维持相对稳定。现已肯定,体温调节中枢在下丘脑;下丘脑前部是温度敏感神经元的所在部位,它们感受着体内温度的变化;下丘脑后部是体温调节的整合部位,能调整机体的产热和散热过程,以保持体温稳定于一定水平(参见第九章)。

(I) In animal thermoregulation experiments, it has been observed that the body temperature can not remain relatively stable after cross-cutting the brain stem below the hypothalamus; If the brain is removed above the brain, body temperature regulation can still remain relatively stable. It has been confirmed that the thermoregulation center is in the hypothalamus; The anterior part of the hypothalamus is the site of temperature-sensitive neurons that experience changes in the temperature of the body; The posterior part of the hypothalamus is an integrated part of body temperature regulation that can adjust the body's heat production and heat dissipation process to maintain body temperature to stabilize Yuyiding(see chapter IX).

(二)摄食行为调节 用埋藏电极刺激清醒动物下丘脑外侧区,则引致动物多食,而破坏此区后,则动物拒食;电刺激下丘脑腹内侧核则动物拒食,破坏此核后,则动物食欲增大而逐渐肥胖。由此认为,下丘脑外侧区存在摄食中枢,而腹内侧核存在所谓饱中枢,后者可以抑制前者的活动。用微电极分别记录下丘脑外侧区和腹内侧核的神经元放电,观察到动物在饥饿情况下,前者放电频率较高而后者放电频率较低;静脉注入葡萄糖后,则前者放电频率减少而后者放电频率增多。说明摄食中枢与饱中枢的神经元活动具有相互制约的关系,而且这些神经元对血糖敏感,血糖水平的高低可能调节着摄食中枢和饱中枢的活动。

(b) feeding behavior regulation using buried electrodes to stimulate the outer hypothalamus region of a sober animal, which causes animals to eat more, and after destroying this area, the animals refuse to eat; Electric stimulation of the ventral nucleus of the hypothalamus is that the animal refuses to eat. After destroying this nucleus, the animal's appetite increases and it gradually becomes obese. From this, it is believed that there is a feeding center in the lateral area of the hypothalamus, and there is a so-called satiation center in the ventral medial nucleus, which can inhibit the activity of the former. Neuronal discharges in the lateral area of the hypothalamus and the ventral medial nucleus were recorded with microelectrodes. In the case of hunger, the former has a higher discharge frequency and the latter has a lower discharge frequency. After intravenous glucose injection, the discharge frequency of the former decreases and the discharge frequency of the latter increases. It shows that the activity of neurons in the feeding center and the satiating center is mutually restricted, and these neurons are sensitive to blood sugar, and the level of blood sugar may regulate the activity of the feeding center and the satiating center.

(三)水平衡调节 水平衡包括水的摄入与排出两个方面,人体通过渴感引起摄水,而排水则主要取决于肾脏的活动。损坏下丘脑可引致烦渴与多尿,说明下丘脑对水的摄入与排出均有关系。

(III) Water balance regulates water balance, including the intake and discharge of water. The human body causes water absorption through thirst, and drainage depends mainly on the activity of the kidneys. Damage to the hypothalamus can cause thirst and multiple urine, indicating that the hypothalamus is related to the intake and discharge of water.

下丘脑内控制摄水的区域与上述摄食中枢极为靠近。破坏下丘脑外侧区后,动物除拒食外,饮水也明显减少;刺激下丘脑外侧区某些部位,则可引致动物饮水增多。

The area in the hypothalamus that controls water intake is very close to the feeding center mentioned above. After the destruction of the lateral area of the hypothalamus, in addition to the refusal of food, the drinking water is also significantly reduced; Stimulating certain parts of the lateral area of the hypothalamus can lead to increased drinking water for animals.

丘脑控制排水的功能是通过改变抗利尿激素的分泌来完成的。下丘脑内存在着渗透压感受器,它能感受血液的晶体渗透压变化来调节抗利尿激素的分泌;渗透压感受器和抗利尿激素合成的神经元均在视上核和室旁核内。一般认为,下丘脑控制摄水的区域与控制抗利尿激素分泌的核团在功能上是有联系的,两者协同调节着水平衡。

The function of the thalamus to control drainage is accomplished by changing the secretion of antidiuretic hormones. There are osmotic receptors in the hypothalamus, which can sense changes in the blood's crystal osmotic pressure to regulate the secretion of antidiuretic hormones; Both osmotic receptors and neurons synthesized by antidiuretic hormones are located in the upper nucleus and the paracyclic nucleus. It is generally believed that the area where the hypothalamus controls water intake is functionally related to the nucleus that controls the secretion of antidiuretic hormones, and the two work together to regulate water balance.

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