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宝宝疫苗接种完全手册 Baby Vaccination Complete Manual 2008-9-16

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  • 作者:cfl
  • 更新日期:2019-07-11 09:46
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计划内疫苗(一类疫苗)是国家规定纳入计划免疫,属于免费疫苗,是从宝宝出生后必须进行接种的。 The planned vaccines(type I vaccines), which are covered by the National immunization programme and are free of charge, are compulsory from the time t

计划内疫苗(一类疫苗)是国家规定纳入计划免疫,属于免费疫苗,是从宝宝出生后必须进行接种的。

The planned vaccines(type I vaccines), which are covered by the National immunization programme and are free of charge, are compulsory from the time the baby is born.

计划免疫包括两个程序:一个是全程足量的基础免疫,即在1周岁内完成的初次接种;二是以后的加强免疫,即根据疫苗的免疫持久性及人群的免疫水平和疾病流行情况适时地进行复种。这样才能巩固免疫效果,达到预防疾病的目的。The planned immunization consists of two procedures: one is a full and sufficient basic immunization, that is, the first vaccination completed within the first year of life; The second is to strengthen the immunization in the future, that is, according to the vaccine's immunity persistence and the population's immunity level and disease prevalence situation to replant in a timely manner. In this way, the immune effect can be consolidated and the purpose of preventing diseases can be achieved.

出生24小时内 接种乙型肝炎疫苗 ,第一针 ,可预防的传染病乙型病毒性肝炎Hepatitis B vaccine, first shot, preventable viral hepatitis B within 24 hours of birth

[肝炎,发热,急性感染,慢性严重疾病,过敏体质的宝宝禁用。[ Hepatitis, fever, acute infections, chronic serious diseases, allergies are banned for babies.

卡介苗 初种可预防结核病。

BCG can prevent tuberculosis.

[早产的宝宝、低出生体重的宝宝(出生体重小于 2500 克)、难产的宝宝应该慎种。正在发热、腹泻、严重皮肤病的宝宝应缓种。结核病,急性传染病,心、肾疾患,免疫功能不全的宝宝禁种。

[ Premature babies, low-birth-weight babies(birth weight less than 2500 grams), and dystocia babies should be cautious. Is fever, diarrhea, serious skin disease baby should be slow seed. Tuberculosis, acute infectious diseases, heart and kidney disorders, immune function of the baby is prohibited.

1月龄 乙型肝炎疫苗 第二针,预防1St Month Hepatitis B Vaccine Second Needle, Prevention

2月龄 脊髓灰质炎糖丸 第一次,预防脊髓灰质炎(小儿麻痹)Polio Pill for the first time in February, Polio Prevention(Polio)

[服苗前一周有腹泻的宝宝,或一天腹泻超过 4 次者,发热、急性病的宝宝,应该暂缓接种。有免疫缺陷症的宝宝,正在使用免疫抑制剂(如激素)的宝宝禁用。对牛奶过敏的宝宝可服液体疫苗。

[ A week before the seedlings had diarrhea, or diarrhea more than 4 times a day, fever, acute disease babies, should be suspended vaccination. Infants with immunodeficiency disorder are banned when they are using immunosuppressants(such as hormones). Baby who is allergic to milk can take a liquid vaccine.

3月龄 脊髓灰质炎糖丸,第二次March Polio Sugar Pill, 2nd

百白破疫苗 第一次 预防百日咳、白喉、破伤风Vaccine against pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus

[发热、急性病或慢性病急性发作期的宝宝应缓种。中枢神经系统疾病(如癫痫),有抽风史的宝宝,严重过敏体质的宝宝禁用。

[ Fever, acute disease or chronic disease acute onset of the baby should be slow seed. Central nervous system diseases(such as epilepsy), babies with a history of stroke, and babies with severe allergies are banned.

4月龄 脊髓灰质炎糖丸 第三次 预防脊髓灰质炎(小儿麻痹)Third Prevention of Polio(Polio) with April Polio Sugar Pill

百白破疫苗 第二次 百日咳、白喉、破伤风Secondary pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus

6月龄 百白破疫苗 第三次 百日咳、白喉、破伤风Third time pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus vaccine in June

乙型肝炎疫苗 第三针 流行性脑脊髓膜炎Hepatitis B vaccine third shot epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis

A群流脑疫苗 第一针Group A brain vaccine first shot

[接种流脑疫苗后的反应比较轻微,偶尔有人出现短暂低热,有些大孩子(8~12岁)偶尔出现过 敏反应,即在接种后的十几小时皮肤出现疱疹等,此时应请医生诊治。注射局部可能出现红晕和压痛,一般在24小时内消退,不用特殊处理。

[ The reaction after inoculating the brain vaccine is relatively slight. Occasionally, there is a short period of low fever. Some older children(8 to 12 years old) occasionally experience sensitive reactions, that is, herpes appears in the skin for a few hours after inoculation. At this time, a doctor should be asked to treat it. There may be redness and tenderness in the injection area, which usually subsides within 24 hours without special treatment.

8月龄 麻疹疫苗 第一针 预防麻疹August age Mazhenyimiao first shot to prevent measles

[患过麻疹的宝宝不必接种。正在发热或有活动性结核的宝宝,有过敏史(特别是对鸡蛋过敏)的宝宝禁用。注射丙种球蛋白的宝宝,间隔一个月后才可接种。[ Babies who have had measles do not need to be vaccinated. Babies with fever or active tuberculosis are banned if they have a history of allergies(especially to eggs). The baby injected with propyl globulin can be inoculated one month later.

9月龄 A群流脑疫苗 第二针 流行性脑脊髓膜炎September age A group brain vaccine second injection epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis

1岁 乙脑 初免两针 流行性乙型脑炎

1 year old first stage of B brain free of two needles of B encephalitis

[发热及急性疾病;严重慢性病;脑及神经系统疾病;过敏性疾病,既往对抗生素、疫苗有过敏史者。

[ Fever and acute diseases; Severe chronic diseases; Diseases of the brain and nervous system; Allergic diseases, past history of allergies to antibiotics, vaccines.

1.5 ~2岁 百白破疫苗加强 预防百日咳、白喉、破伤风

1.5-2 year old white beer vaccine strengthens prevention of pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus

脊髓灰质炎糖丸加强 预防脊髓灰质炎(小儿麻痹)Polio sugar pill enhances polio prevention(polio)

乙脑疫苗加强 预防流行性乙型脑炎Strengthening prevention of epidemic B encephalitis

3岁 A群流脑疫苗, 也可用A+C流脑加强第三针 预防流行性脑脊髓膜炎The 3-year-old A group brain vaccine can also be used to strengthen the third needle to prevent epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis

4岁 脊髓灰质炎疫苗加强4 year old polio vaccine strengthened

7岁 麻疹疫苗加强 预防麻疹Seven years old Mazhenyimiao strengthens measles prevention

白破二联疫苗加强White Blast Double Vaccine Enhancement

乙脑疫苗初免两针 预防流行性乙型脑炎First free of two doses of B vaccine to prevent epidemic B encephalitis

A群流脑疫苗第四针Group A brain vaccine fourth shot

12岁 卡介苗加强 农村12 years old BCG strengthens rural areas

计划外疫苗(二类疫苗)是自费疫苗。可以根据宝宝自身情况、各地区不同状况及家长经济状况而定。Unscheduled vaccines(type II vaccines) are self-funded vaccines. Depending on the baby's own situation, different conditions in different regions and the parents 'economic situation.

如果选择注射二类疫苗应在不影响一类疫苗情况下进行选择性注射。要注意接种过活疫苗(麻疹疫苗、乙脑疫苗、脊灰糖丸)要间隔4周才能接种死疫苗(百白破、乙肝、流脑及所有二类疫苗)

If type II vaccine is selected, selective injection should be carried out without affecting type I vaccine. Attention should be paid to the fact that vaccination of live vaccines(Mazhenyimiao, B, polio pills) takes 4 weeks to vaccinate(white beer, B B, brain and all type 2 vaccines)

体质虚弱的宝宝可考虑接种的疫苗A weak baby may consider vaccination

流感疫苗[有4类宝宝不宜接种流感疫苗,其中包括6个月以下婴儿;具有过敏体质,尤其是对鸡蛋过敏的宝宝;患有先天性疾病的孩子;患感冒、发烧、发热等或急性病发作时,则先治病,等身体恢复后再接种。

Influenza vaccine

[ There are 4 types of babies who are not suitable for influenza vaccination, including infants under 6 months old; Children with allergies, especially to eggs; Children with congenital diseases; When suffering from a cold, fever, fever, etc., or acute disease, treat the disease first, wait for the body to recover before inoculating.

对7个月以上、患有哮喘、先天性心脏病、慢性肾炎、糖尿病等抵抗疾病能力差的宝宝,一旦流感流行,容易患病并诱发旧病发作或加重,家长应考虑接种。

Parents should consider inoculation for infants who have been suffering from asthma, congenital heart disease, chronic nephritis, diabetes and other diseases for more than 7 months. Once the flu epidemic occurs, they are prone to illness and induce the onset or aggravation of old diseases.

肺炎疫苗Pneumonia vaccine

肺炎是由多种细菌、病毒等微生物引起,单靠某种疫苗预防效果有限,一般健康的宝宝不主张选用。但体弱多病的宝宝,应该考虑选用。

Pneumonia is caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. The prevention effect of a vaccine alone is limited, and generally healthy babies do not advocate selection. But the weak and sick baby, should consider to choose.

流行高发区应接种的疫苗

Vaccines to be administered in high-prevalence areas

B型流感嗜血杆菌混合疫苗(HIB疫苗)

Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine(HIB vaccine)

[处于高热或急性传染病发病期的宝宝和对破伤风蛋白过敏的宝宝慎用。[ Be careful with babies who are in high fever or acute infectious disease and those who are allergic to tetanus protein.

世界上已有20多个国家将HIB疫苗列入常规计划免疫。5岁以下宝宝容易感染B型流感嗜血杆菌。它不仅会引起小儿肺炎,还会引起小儿脑膜炎、败血症、脊髓炎、中耳炎、心包炎等严重疾病,是引起宝宝严重细菌感染的主要致病菌。

More than 20 countries in the world have included HIB vaccines in routine planned immunization. Baby under 5 is susceptible to Haemophilus influenzae type B. It will not only cause pediatric pneumonia, but also cause severe diseases such as infantile meningitis, sepsis, myomyelitis, otitis media, and pericarditis. It is the main pathogenic bacteria that cause severe bacterial infections in babies.

轮状病毒疫苗Rotavirus vaccine

轮状病毒疫苗建议于宝宝 2、4、6个月大时使用,视需要可提前到宝宝6周大时开始使用,之后每三星期再次使用。较大的宝宝第一剂有较明显的副作用,所以不建议宝宝6个月大以后才开始第一剂。疫苗使用后四周内爸妈在给宝宝换尿布后应多洗手,以免排泄出的活病毒引起粪口传播。哺喂母乳时仍可使用疫苗,虽然使用第一剂疫苗与哺乳同时进行,可能减低免疫效果,但口服三剂后就完全相同。若于服用疫苗期间,不幸遭到轮状病毒感染, 亦需继续完成三剂疫苗,因为仍然可以避免其他血清型的轮状病毒感染及降低感染的严重性。

Rotavirus vaccines are recommended for use when the baby is 2, 4, and 6 months old. If necessary, they can be used as early as 6 weeks old, and then used again every three weeks. Larger baby's first dose has more obvious side effects, so it is not recommended to start the first dose after the baby is 6 months old. Four weeks after the vaccine is used, parents should wash their hands more after changing the baby, so as not to excrete live virus to cause fecal mouth transmission. Vaccines can still be used when breastfeeding. Although the use of the first dose of vaccine at the same time as breastfeeding may reduce the immune effect, it is exactly the same after oral administration. If you are unfortunately infected with Rotavirus during the vaccine, you also need to continue to complete three doses of vaccine because it is still possible to avoid other serotype Rotavirus infections and reduce the severity of the infection.

[第一剂使用后五天,宝宝偶有低度发热、食欲不振、躁动及活力降低等现象;而第二剂则只有轻度发热;到第三剂时这些现象就很少发生了。[ Five days after the first dose was used, the baby occasionally had low fever, loss of appetite, restlessness, and reduced vitality. The second dose has only mild fever; At the third dose, these phenomena rarely occur.

轮状病毒是3个月~2岁婴幼儿病毒性腹泻最常见的原因。接种轮状病毒疫苗能避免宝宝严重腹泻。

Rotavirus is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in infants between 3 months and 2 years old. Vaccination against Rotavirus can avoid severe diarrhea.

狂犬病疫苗

Rabies vaccine

[宝宝在接种过程中应忌食油、可乐、咖啡、浓茶、刺激性食物,类固醇和免疫抑制剂会导致接种失败,应慎用。[ In the course of inoculation, the baby should not eat oil, Cola, coffee, strong tea, irritating food, steroids and immunosuppressants will lead to vaccination failure, should be used with caution.

发病后的死亡率几乎100%,还未有一种有效的治疗狂犬病的方法,凡被病兽或带毒动物咬伤或抓伤后,应立即注射狂犬疫苗。若被严重咬伤,如伤口在头面部、全身多部位咬伤、深度咬伤等,应联合用抗狂犬病毒血清。The mortality rate after the onset is almost 100 %. There is still no effective method to treat rabies. Any person who is bitten or scratched by a sick animal or a poisoned animal should be injected with rabies vaccine immediately. If you are severely bitten, such as wounds on the head and face, multiple body bites, deep bites, etc., you should jointly use rabies virus serum.

即将要上幼儿园的宝宝考虑接种的疫苗Vaccines for preschoolers to consider

水痘疫苗chickenpox vaccine

[有严重疾病史、过敏史、免疫缺陷病者禁用。一般疾病治疗期、发热期的宝宝要缓用。[ There is a history of serious diseases, allergies, and immunodeficiency disorders. General disease treatment period, fever period of the baby should be slow to use.

如果宝宝抵抗力差应该选用;对于身体好的宝宝可用可不用,不用的理由是水痘是良性自限性“传染病”,列入传染病管理范围。即使宝宝患了水痘,产生的并发症也很少。

If the baby's resistance is poor, it should be selected; For healthy babies can not be used, the reason for not using is that chicken pox is a benign self-limited "infectious disease", included in the scope of infectious disease management. Even if the baby has chickenpox, there are few complications.

甲肝疫苗Hepatitis A vaccine

[发热、急性病或慢性病发作期的宝宝应缓种。免疫缺陷,正在接受免疫抑制剂治疗的宝宝,过敏体质的宝宝禁用。[ Fever, acute disease or chronic disease of the baby should be slow seed. Immune deficiency, is undergoing immunosuppressant treatment of the baby, allergic constitution of the baby is banned.

甲型肝炎又称急性传染性肝炎,肝炎病毒通过消化道传染。流行范围较广。凡1岁以上未患过甲型肝炎但与甲型肝炎病人有密切接触的人,以及其他易感人群都应该接种甲肝疫苗。Hepatitis A is also known as acute infectious hepatitis, and hepatitis virus is transmitted through the digestive tract. Widespread prevalence. People over 1 years of age who have not contracted hepatitis A but have close contact with hepatitis A patients, as well as other vulnerable groups, should be vaccinated against hepatitis A.

疫苗接种的常见问题

Frequently Asked Questions on Vaccination

Q:打了预防针就百分百保险吗?

Q: Are you 100 % insured against vaccination?

目前没有一种疫苗是百分之百有效的,绝大多数疫苗的有效率在95%以上,但支气管肺炎疫苗的有效率较低,大约为70-80%。

At present, no vaccine is 100 % effective. The efficiency of the vast majority of vaccines is more than 95 %, but the efficiency of bronchial pneumonia vaccines is low, about 70-80 %.

Q:是不是打预防针越多越好呢?Q: Is it better to get as many vaccinations as possible?

A:不是。疫苗是用病菌、病毒及其产生的毒素制成的,虽然经过杀灭和减毒等特殊处理,但仍会有一定毒性,接种后可能发生一些过敏反应,轻者出现皮疹,重者发生休克。这种过敏反应的发生往往随着打针次数的增加而增多。A: No. The vaccine is made of pathogens, viruses, and toxins produced by them. Although it has been specially treated such as killing and detoxification, it will still have certain toxicity. After inoculation, some allergic reactions may occur, and light rashes occur and severe shock occurs. The occurrence of this allergic reaction tends to increase with the increase in the number of injections.

Q:国内疫苗和进口疫苗有什么区别?

Q: What is the difference between domestic vaccines and imported vaccines?

A:国产、进口疫苗价格上的差异在于疫苗毒株及其培养工艺不同,都通过了国家卫生部门严格检查,生产线按照GMP要求,由国家药监局批准生产。可以根据自己的经济承受能力选择使用。

A: The difference in the price of domestic and imported vaccines is that the vaccine strains and their cultivation processes are different. They have passed the strict inspection of the National health department. The production line is approved by the State Food and Drug Administration in accordance with the requirements of GMP. You can choose to use according to your economic affordability.

Q:注射疫苗的时间内宝宝生病了怎么办?还能打疫苗吗?Q: What if the baby gets sick during the vaccination? Can you still get the vaccine?

A:等宝宝病好后可以继续接种。因为接种疫苗时间间隔28~56天属于正常接种范围,可正常继续接种。

A: You can continue to inoculate your baby when he is well. Because the vaccination time interval of 28 to 56 days is the normal vaccination range, it can continue to be inoculated normally.

Q:怎么才知道预防接种后有没有产生抗体?

Q: How do we know if there are antibodies after vaccination?

A:一般由各地疾病控制中心定期或隔几年抽出一部分已经接种过疫苗的人,按年龄组分别来进行复查。

A: Generally, the disease control centers at various places regularly or every few years take out a portion of those who have been vaccinated and review them by age group.

·接种疫苗前一周要精心照顾宝宝,减少感冒等不适的症状;

• Carefully take care of the baby one week before vaccination to reduce symptoms such as colds;

·如宝宝有不适症状,等康复后再接种疫苗;

· If the baby has symptoms, wait for recovery before vaccination;

·接种疫苗前对医生如实回答宝宝的情况。Answer the doctor truthfully about the baby before vaccination.

·接种脊灰糖丸(脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗糖丸)前半小时内不能吃奶、喝热水。

:: No milk or hot water during the first half hour of inoculation with poliomyelitis(live polio vaccine).

·接种后在医院或防疫站观察15~30分钟;

:: 15 to 30 minutes of observation at a hospital or epidemic prevention station after vaccination;

·注射疫苗当天不要洗澡;

:: Do not bathe on the day of vaccination;

·疫苗都有抗原,要预防宝宝发烧,给宝宝多喝白开水;

· Vaccines have antigens, to prevent the baby fever, to the baby drink more water;

·一些加入吸附剂的疫苗容易出现红肿、发热、疼痛等症状。家长可用热毛巾对红肿的地方进行热敷

· Some vaccines added to the adsorbent are prone to symptoms such as redness, fever, and pain. Parents can use hot towels to heat the red and swollen areas

·接种脊灰糖丸(脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗糖丸)后半小时内不能吃奶、喝热水。

:: No milk or hot water for half an hour after vaccination with poliomyelitis(live polio vaccine).

·密切关注宝宝,看有无异常发烧,注射地方有无异常反应。

Pay close attention to the baby to see if there is an abnormal fever and if there is an abnormal reaction in the injection area.

1岁以前,在可爱宝宝的生命里,没有什么能比预防免疫更至关重要的了。虽然,现在在大多数城市的家庭里,已经知道要按时给宝宝接种,但是还有很多新爸新妈,没有将免疫接种提高到足够的重视程度,漏打、错打针的现象时有发生,而且,也有不少家长自作主张帮宝宝“省略”了一些其实非常必要的预防针。给宝宝定制一个“免疫接种小护照”吧,提醒爸爸妈妈不要忘记定期给宝宝接种疫苗,让宝宝从小拥有健康体魄啊!

Before the age of one, nothing was more important in the life of a cute baby than immunization. Although families in most cities now know to vaccinate their babies on time, there are still many new mothers and fathers who have not raised the level of immunization to enough attention, missed shots and wrong shots, and, There are also many parents of their own initiative to help the baby "omitted" some of the very necessary precautions. Customize a "small passport for immunization" to the baby, reminding the father and mother not to forget to regularly vaccinate the baby, so that the baby has a healthy body!

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